Ribbon-Back Chair

                                                                                                             The Ribbon Back-Chair,



                                                                                               'The Gentleman & Cabinetmakers Director '



                                                                                                                                           The Director

                                                                                                                                                  Plate  XVI.

                                                                                                                        Thomas Chippendale's Words in: 1754.



                                                                                                                                                              Decipher Time

                                                                                                                                                    Three Ribbon Back Chairs

                                                                                                                           First one made Several times-'YES' - Second One- 'YES'

                                                                                                                                                                Third One + NO?

                                                                                                                                  Hence My Arson Fire on: 23rd  January 2007

                                                                                                                                               Thomas Chippendale.




                                               "The Master Carver Association"


                                                                                                                                                                 Jack Plane


                                                                                                                                                       Dick Reid  &  Paul Ferguson



                                                                                                                                                            Sold. 16/10/2003



                                                                                                                                                   The Norman Holroyd

                                                                                                                                                      ' LIBRARY CHAIR'

                                                                                                                                                                 ' 1951 '  

                                                                                                                                    NOT AS Stated by:  Paul Ferguson 

                                                                                                                                           "THE IMPOSSIBLE DREAM"

                                                                                                                                                  16th January 2004

                                                                                                                                          Mr Ferguson-Mr Reid- Mr Plane

                                                                                                                                                             A Director

                                                                                                                                                   True Ribbon-back Chair


                                                                                                                                          Thomas  Chippendale

                                                                                                                                                    stated these words in


                                                                                                                                              The best  I have ever seen


                                                                                                                                                 Perhaps have ever Made.


                                                                                                                                                    By stating these words?


                                                                                              He as admitting he never made one in his life.


                                                                                                                                                           Dr J Hemingway,

                                                                                                                                                          In his studio 2005,




                                                                                                                                               THE FIRST EVER




                                                                            RIBBON BACK CHAIR EVER       








                                                                                                                                              From York, (Yorkshire) UK.


                                                                                                                                                       'Past' president


                                                                                                                                   THE MASTER CARVERS ASSOCIATION






'The Closed Shop.' and his London partner in crime: Paul Ferguson.include Dick Reid's latest: Recruit,Ben Herms who cannot tell the deforce from: Weather' to ' Whether '. Matt is Speaking about the:Thomas Chippendale

, Ribban-Back Chair in his reply. Robert Ryan, (Smith-Watson, in: New York) is Stating: Thomas Chippendale would be Smiling in Heaven.Robert Stack is saying in 2002, about,The Thomas Chippendale.Impossible chair your work is spectacular Joseph Hemingway  Robert Ryan( New York ) Press Release in 2008.

which brings us full circle to:The Victora & Albert Museum, London in 2001. Its The first 'True' Image ever to be Created. Note:The Impossible Chair.

 The Very Reason for an Arson Fire in 2007sent by Dick Ried, of The Master Carver Association, Just to get me a 'New Studio' by 2012.. Thank you. Ried the Greed.


Master Carver Asociation, Paul Fuguson. stated: That an Original, Thomas Chippendale, Ribbon-back chair, 1760. sold to an America Collector.  for, £386,40015/10/2003,  WHAT A JOKER.


 This Quickly  generated my interest. For: I soon found out from 'The Press Release' by: Sutherby's of London.  it was a 'Scam Sale'.  for the 'Release' stated? it was only influenced by Chippendale

Note: For the none technical person, This Chair  is named a Splat Backed Chair, Because of a splat back center rail, at the back of the chair.

Note: The sale of this Splat Chair 15/10/2003 was made by: Taylor & Hobson Ltd (1851-1991), England. Designed by there Designer, 'Mr Wilf Uttley' in 1950. Dr Hemingway can guarantee  this date, for he repaired the back leg while working for 'Taylor & Hobson Ltd', in 1959, at there Cabinet Works in Huddersfieid, works Manager, 'Roy Williams', placed this chair repair with joseph, and his instruction was to use the design from the drawing office,upstairs. at (27, Chapel Hill, Huddersfieid)

The plan was dated  1950, signed: Wilf Uttley.Taylor & Hobson Ltd.


Note   A ladder backed chair in 'England' is named on America as a 'Ribbon-back chair'. Designed and made by: 'Thomas Afflict', (1740-1759) after 1756 (c.)

Note 6: This is substantiated by the father who was named: Mr James Afflict, The1754 Subscribers list,'The Gentleman & Cabinetmakers Director, who Purchased   (2 Books).

one for himself, one for 14 year old  son:Thomas Afflict, for his Christmas Present in 1754.


Note:He was only Copying 'Mr Nathanial Hobson', Cabinet-maker, father of young Nathanial,  also in the same Subscribers list,; who both secured a job for there son's at: Thomas Chippendale & Co in 1754. 


 Far Right- 'American' 'Ribbon-Back Chair'1756(C.)Centre- The1754'Ribban-backChair, 2010. Left ' is England's (2003) 'Ribbon-back Chair'.this all changed in 2010, when a correct version of this chair was carved,By: Dr Joseph Hemingway.

For the none technical person,

 For ease: The left chair is named (incorrectly), ' A Ribbon-back Chair':  'England ' (Made by Taylor & Hobson Ltd, in1950)Cabinetmaker:Norman Holryd ( Not by: Thomas Chippendale,in 1760? as some would like us all to beleave? as True. because they sold it for:£386,400 on:15/10/2003.Thank You Rene? I will be intouch.much sooner than this e/mail.



                                                                 THOMAS CHIPPENDALE, Ribban-back Chair's  

                                                                                                                                            By, Herbert Cesinsky, 1920.

 homas Chippendale is usually credited with being the "Originator'' of the Ribbon-Back Chair.

 HOWEVER, like a good many of the statements which have been made regarding this Famous cabinetmaker.


This requires investigation.


 'Chippendale's own testimony, on this point is instructive.

In the following text?  Plate XVI, the first edition (1754) “The Gentleman & Cabinetmakers Director'' we find the following:- three Ribbon-Back chairs, Note: Chippendale states? (Which l may speak without vanity? Are the best 1 have ever seen or Perhaps. Have ever made?).

The chair on the left hand, has been executed, which had an excellent effect and give complete satisfaction to all who saw it, 1 make no doubt but, the other two will give the same content, if properly handled in there execution.

Two points are evident from the foregoing:

 Point 1, There was only One of these three designs has been made, (his Words) from the "1754 Director ".

  Point 2 That the ribbon-back chair was not a novelty, or he would not have described his design as the best example he had ever scene.

Mr. Cesinsky point’s out this in his write-up (the book on English Furniture, vol 11, Pages: 190-191).

I doubt whether Chippendale had made more than one? From the first "Director" in spite of his declaration, he had made several sets?

The same three designs are again illustrated in the third edition of the "Director'' (1762), the only modification being, a re- numbering of the plate.

The question here! Is the ribbon-back chair, evolved from a proceeding type?

 Like this one from: 1745 Designed and Made by:Matthias Lock:1710-1765c.(Not  by: Thomas Chippendale in 1755, as: The Chippendale Society, Claim's 

Note?There were many serious competitors in the 1750s to Chippendale, and we might start here with William Hallett, and his later partners William Vile and John Cobb. None of them had subscribed to the Director, so as to avoid any charge that they had copied (as many of lesser status did) its attractive designs. They had sufficient ability in any case to survive by their own merits. Their senior partner, William Hallett (1707-81)z had been successful enough with his accomplished mahogany furniture, and by an advantageous marriage to an heiress, to buy the site of Cannons, the 1st Duke of Chandos's great house at Whitchurch, Middlesex, and to build himself a house on its centre vaults. William Vile trained under Hallett, and in 1751, together with a Norfolk-born upholsterer, John Cobb, he set up in partnership near to Chippendale in St. Martin's Lane. Hallett acted as their financial backer and continued to support them for the rest of their lives. He outlived Vile, who died in 1767,

and Cobb, who died in 1778. Examples of oval beads on furniture attributed to Vile in the early 1750s show the hazards of crediting authorship without documentation. The mahogany table press made by Benjamin Goodison for the Earl of Leicester at Holkham in 1751 also has applied ovals on each side. There are indications that the freelance carver Sefferin Alken supplied them to several makers, including Vile. The latter does seem to have made some furniture with elaborate pierced frets; here again the attribution rests on comparison, this time with the fret top to the bureau- secretaire he made for Queen Charlotte in 1761.

There were other able contenders for a patron's purse and interest-in particular, William and John Linnell, William Inca and John Mayhew, the carver Thomas Johnson (at least for his designs) and the French e'e'ninist resident in London, Pierre Langlois. We have noted that in the 1750s the Linnells secured one of their most important commissions, to provide the 4th Duke of Beaufort with a japanned bed, eight armchairs, two pairs of standing shelves and a commode en suite for the Chinese bedroom at Badminton House, Gloucestershire.

When lnce and Mayhew had established the outline of a business, they decided, in 1759, to issue designs 'in weekly numbers'. They imitated Chippendale's Director both in the intended number of plates (160) and in the use of Matthew Darly as engraver. Unfortunately they underestimated the amount of work required, and they had to compete with the build-up by Chippendale to his third edition; the venture foundered in the autumn of 1760 after the appearance of Part 21. The astute Robert Sayer, one of the most successful eighteenth- century print-sellers, not averse to plagiarism when it suited him, then issued about 90 of the engravings in a large folio titled Universal System of Household Furniture.

It was dedicated to George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough, for whom the firm were later to work at Blenheim Palace. Rococo with Gothic and Chinese overtones, formed the main style of the designs. Some were unashamedly copied from the 1754 edition of the Director, but explanatory notes were printed in both English and French.

As one of the most accomplished carvers generation, if the suites of engravings of the late of his 1750s

bearing his name are any guide Thomas Johnson (1714-c 1778) was teaching carving, drawing and modelling. He had already published several suites of engravings in a flamboyant rococo style in the 1750s, and his name is associated with a small range of highly mannered furniture. Not least in this connection is a set of four candlesticks, c 1758, which correspond closely to a 1756 design in his One Hundred and Flfty New designs (which was freely adapted by Chippendale in the 1762 edition of the

Director, Plate CX1V). Two are now at the Philadelphia

Museums one at the Victoria and Albert Museum and

one at Temple Newsam House, Leeds. They have lobed tops supported on an irregular shaft of clustered columns, entwined by a pair of dolphins mounted on an intermediate triangular base of piled rockwork. Made

for George, 1st Lord Lyttelton, of Hagley Hall, Worcestershire,

they are in the vanguard of all rococo furniture of the 1750s.

to his real abilities, Many of Johnson's designs, unlike those were, however, marred by an excess of blurring the structural outlines. Circular and oval mirrors were also given in every pattern-book, with carved squirrels perched on the crestings and long-beaked birds, rush fronds, bulrushes central heads of Apollo and floral sprays. Among the most attractive mirrors are the overmantel examples, in which a rectangle would be surrounded by a froth of exuberant carving, with paintings often incorporated in an upper or lower stage, and brackets provided to display oriental porcelain. A lively imagination was a first requirement for a carver, and in those . examples which incorporated depictions of architecture and ruins Chippendale urged that the ornament 'must be carved very bold, so that

of Lock,

ornament the ruins may serve as bas-relief'.

The French e'be'niste Pierre Langlois, born in Paris about 1738, had settled in London by the late 1750s and is known only by furniture completed within a very

short period of time. His trade-card recorded 'all sorts of fine Cabinets and Commodes made and inlaid in the Politest manner with Brass and Tortoiseshell . . .' His first known commission was for the 4th Duke of Bedford in 1759, and suggests that by that year his reputation was established in London.

Commodes were Pierre Langlois's speciality. He created them in bold serpentine form in the early 1760s, with doors or drawers, and decorated with coloured marquetry of flowers and musical instruments set against light-coloured herringbone-pattern backgrounds.

The tops, inlaid with brass or marquetry, were set on deal carcases. The inexpensive deal was used in chamfered panels at the back, and painted black to hide its cheapness. The corner ormolu mounts, wreathing down the curved legs and terminating in a scroll foot and volute, were presumably imported from France- some examples have a crown 'C' mark, showing that tax has been paid-or were cast from French examples.

It was at this stage of his career, the early 1760s when he was turning forty years old, that Chippendale demonstrated the extent of his mature abilities and business acumen. The rising star in the architectural firmament was Robert Adam (1728-92), fresh back in 1758 from four years' training in Italy and bent on introducing English patrons to a refined form of the antique-classicism adapted in a linear and elegant way to a new style of decoration. Any furniture-maker who wanted to be in on the profitable vogue had to change his whole output from rococo, Gothic and Chinese, intermeshed as they were, to precise nee-classical shapes. This subject was addressed by Chippendale in the and edition of the Director (1762). The tide of opinion had been turning slowly throughout the 1750s, lacking focus and impetus, but accepting the archaeological designs found in the publications of Robert Wood and James Dawkins, Ruins of palmyra (1753) and the Ruins of Balbec (1757), and in Piranesi's etchings of the remains of ancient civilizations. James Stuart, William Chambers and Robert Adam had all returned from studying in Italy and embarked on neo-classical projects. How- ever, it has been suggested that, important as these books and events were, the percipient Chippendale had started to design furniture which revealed neoclassical precepts 'at least three years before Robert Adam's first essay in this style'. He 'experimented with fluted term legs, combined with rails treated as a Doric frieze; he used caryatid supports united to a Doric entablature and employed classical demi-figures on the open lower stage of a cabinet and stands (Christopher Gilbert, The Life and work of Thomas Chippendale, 1978.)

Elegant ovals were made to serve for looking glass shapers giranholes



















































 Point 3, ls the chair above a creation of the: “Chippendale school" I think not? l think l am correct in postulating that, Chippendale, expended his business after 1750, as in spite of many statements, we know very little of him. Before this date, He probably commenced business between 1735c & 1740c, but it is more that doubtful the style which we know as ‘The Chippendale School’ had evolved before 1754; it was the first "Gentleman & Cabinetmakers Director" which gave Fame to Chippendale through Publicity.

Additional Text by: Dr J Hemingway, who carved the first ever ‘Ribban-back Chair, in 2007. Note 1, The trained eye can spot, 2, The simular  top rail? 3,The long C scrolls imergin from the back seat rail,rising upwards, 4, The Craped  Ribbon at the top of the Splat back Rail. all contibute to design IV, being a copy of this 1745 Chair.


      a  Splad backed Chair,Made by:Taylor & Hobson Ltd of Huddersfield, West Yorkshire, UK. in 1950. Sold by:Sutherby's, of London. on the15/10/2003. as an Original: 'Thomas Chippendale, 'Ribbon-back Chair '.making: ' The Scam Sale' of the 'Century '.